COMM11110 Module 3 Blog Topic: Why the words ‘Reliable’, ‘Credible’ ‘Substantiated’ and ‘Accurate’ should be applied to research in PR campaigns

Module 3 Blog Topic:  Why should the words ‘Reliable’, ‘Credible’ ‘Substantiated’ and ‘Accurate’ be applied to any research we might use in a PR campaign? With so much information today online, how can we decide what is safe to use and what isn’t? Give at least two references to illustrate your post (250-300 words only).

‘Credibility’ is a significant variable in the communication process (Wilcox, Cameron, Reber & Shin 2013). Without credible or reliable sources research could be incorrect or misleading; thus creating havoc for a PR campaign. Not only can it create havoc, but it can also cause legal issues if this information is used and is found to be false.
Eunson (2012) remark that, primary and secondary sources can be used as a reliable or credible source when researching. Primary resources may include: questionnaires, interviews, surveys etcetera. Secondary sources may include: journals, research papers, periodicals and more (Costigan 2015). With credible sources implemented, the information written from the research should; therefore, be substantiated or accurate. Wilcox et al. (2013) states that, public relations departments often use online databases to research facts and keep updated in the latest.
However, before a PR starts research; other aspects or important questions are often considered, these may include considerations such as: the time and budget, the importance of the situation etcetera (Wilcox et al. 2013). Thus Wilcox et al. (2013) claims that the audience must perceive the source which is provided as a knowledgeable expert on the subject as well as honest and objective. Nevertheless, before research another aspect to consider when trying to make a message credible is the context, actions speak louder than words or news releases; thereby, if a message says staff are friendly then staff should be friendly otherwise the whole credibility of the message is wasted (Wilcox et al. 2013). To decide or evaluate what is safe and what is not; elements to consider are: does it list an author, are there any sources backing up what is said, is there a connection to what is discussed and is it biased.

Figure 1: Australian PR Evaluation Model Source: PUBLIC RELATIONS INSTITUTE OF AUSTRALIA
Figure 1: Australian PR Evaluation Model
Source: PUBLIC RELATIONS INSTITUTE OF AUSTRALIA

Figure Reference

Public Relations Institute of Australia 2014 (2013), Australian pr evaluation model, digital image, viewed 4 May 2015, http://www.pria.com.au/knowledgebank/area?command=record&id=546

References

Costigan, L 2015, COMM11003 Communication in Professional Contexts: study guide, CQuniversity e-courses, Bundaberg.

Eunson, B 2012, Communicating in the 21st century, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Milton.

Wilcox, D, Cameron, G, Reber, B & Shin, J 2013, Think public relations, 2nd edn, Pearson Education, New Jersey.

COMM11110 Module 8 Blog Topic: the difference between persuasion and coercion

Module 8 Blog Topic:   What is the difference between persuasion and coercion? Where would you draw the line at using questionable tactics in order to achieve your public relations objective/goal? Give an example of what you consider to be an ethical use of persuasion in PR. Give at least two references to illustrate your post (250-300 words only).

The concept of persuasion has been present a long time throughout history (Wilcox, Cameron, Reber, & Shin 2013). Persuasion is implemented when communication to an audience is intended to induce belief or action. Ten major concepts related to persuasive communication are: audience analysis, creating the audience’s self-interest, to receive audience participation, to receive suggestions for action, to contain source credibility, to provide a clear message, to have precise message structure, employing the correct channels, timing and setting, lastly reinforcement of the message (Wilcox et al. 2013).
The definition of coercion (Cambridge Dictionaries 2015) states that it is to (a) restrain or dominate by nullifying individual will, (b) to compel to an act or choice, (c) to enforce or bring about force or threat. Thus, coercion means making someone do something against their will using intimidation or threats. So the difference between the two is that persuasion is inducing someone to do something with reasoning; whilst, coercion is forcing someone to do something by intimidating or threatening them, which is not only immoral; but to threaten someone is something which could be legally frowned upon.
The line should therefore be drawn at ethical persuasion, as coercion is an immoral and legally frowned upon action. Wilcox et al. (2013) provides an example of ethical persuasion in public relations which is the Ivy Lee Rockefellers and coal industry case. Where Ivy Lee used his research to inform/persuade the Rockefellers on the best course of action; for instance, when he persuaded the mining company to send an open thank you letter to the miners. Following that, when he persuaded John D. Rockefeller, Jr to visit the Ludlow mines where he interacted with the miners. This public relations case is often referred to as the beginning of modern industrial public relations (Wilcox et al. 2013).

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
Figure 1: Ivy Ledbetter Lee Founder of Modern Public Relations GHM-115-7-Polk Co Source: Groundspeak 2015 (2008) digital image,Waymark Gallery, viewed 3 May 2015, http://www.waymarking.com/gallery/default.aspx?f=1&guid=789dff2d-fc0e-4c34-beb1-6b1f70ab3b2e&gid=2

Figure References
Groundspeak 2015 (2008), Ivy Ledbetter Lee founder of modern public relations GHM-115-7-Polk Co, digital image, Waymark Gallery, viewed 3 May 2015, http://www.waymarking.com/gallery/default.aspx?f=1&guid=789dff2d-fc0e-4c34-beb1-6b1f70ab3b2e&gid=2

References

Cambridge Dictionaries 2015, Coercion, viewed 3 May 2015, http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/coercion

Wilcox, D, Cameron, G, Reber, B & Shin, J 2013, Think public relations, 2nd edn, Pearson Education, New Jersey.

Reflection exercise 5.1 – COMM11003 Communication in Professional Contexts.

Reflection exercise 5.1 – COMM11003 Communication in Professional Contexts.

There are many events that can be planned throughout life, from general daily activities to specific projects. Eunson (2012) goes through some of things that can be planned such as time planning; whether, this is for verbal presentations or for general time planning like what days and times to work on an assignment. Or content planning such as deciding what is to be written, what audience it will be for and many other content that can be planned (Eunson 2012). Planning is a useful tool that can be used throughout life. According to Costigan (2015) using the internet and the information systems, as well as the database management, has significantly improved the ability to conduct secondary research. The downside of these internet databases are the sheer amount of information that has to be analysed carefully in order to find what is relevant (Costigan 2015). For assignment one the plan is:

Figure: strategic-plan-cycle Source: business freedom group
Figure: strategic-plan-cycle
Source: business freedom group

Stage One: Pick a topic.
Stage Two: Pick a medium.
Stage Three: Research the mobile phone website, using articles, books, Journals etc.
Stage Four: Take notes on anything good or bad about the Medium.
Stage Five: Write the essay using the research/notes.
Stage Six: Edit and proofread the essay.
Stage Seven: Submit the essay via moodle.
At this blog post submission what had currently been done was stage 5. The topic two was chosen: ‘Find a communication medium (for example, a website, a report, a blog) and discuss it in terms of audience, purpose and context. You will need to include the link, or scanned copy, or a ‘cut and paste’ of your medium so the teaching staff can access your medium.’ Research was then conducted with notes taken and the analysis of the website was done also. The stage 5 began on the 11th of April 2015. The Plan/date for beginning stage six will be the 18th of April, as three other assignments are also being done this week. The essay is due on the 24th of April and will be submitted via moodle.

Figure Reference

Business Freedom Group 2014 (2015), Strategic-plan-cycle, digital image, Business Freedom Group, viewed 10 May, http://www.businessfreedomgroup.com.au/the-importance-of-strategic-planning/

References

Costigan, L 2015, COMM11003 Communication in Professional Contexts: Study Guide, CQuniversity ecourse, Bundaberg

Eunson, B 2012, Communicating in the 21st century, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Milton.

Reflection Exercise 4.2 – COMM11003 Communication in Professional Contexts.

Reflection Exercise 4.2

Conducting research is extremely important in all assignments especially essays. Without research there is no evidence to support any claims made in an argument or document. Without research there can be a lack of knowledge about the subject being written or even spoken about. As Eunson (2012) states catalogues in libraries can be used to filter the results that show up. Primary and secondary sources can be used when researching. Primary resources may include: questionnaires, interviews, surveys. Secondary sources can include Journals, research papers, and periodicals (Costigan 2015). Researching techniques may include using qualitative and quantitative research, as this allows for the researcher to have an in depth insight or understanding of what they are looking for (Wilcox, Cameron, Reber & Shin 2013). Content analysis is very important when researching, as this can allow for certain information to be categorised under the appropriate sections for a more organised use (Wilcox et al. 2013). However, research is necessary for everyday life as well for things like buying cars, buying textbooks, looking up companies and much more (Eunson 2012). The most recent research I did was when I was looking for my car, I searched multiple car sales websites for many months looking for a car that was fairly cheap or at least under the amount of money I could purchase one for. I found that this lasted several months before me and my mother found one which has 5 doors, low kilometres, a reasonable year model, a hatchback, and an automatic which all came under $6000. I would say that it was definitely hard to do as automatics which have 5 doors were a lot dearer than either a manual or a 3 door automatic car. Secondary sources were the main resource used in my research for a car with a small amount of primary sources included (Costigan 2015).

References

Costigan, L 2015, COMM11003 Communication in Professional Contexts: Study Guide, CQuniversity ecourse, Bundaberg.

Dr. Creswell, J 2013, Telling a complete story with qualitative and mixed methods research, video, 1 March, viewed 12 May 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l5e7kVzMIfs

Eunson, B 2012, Communicating in the 21st century, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Milton.

Wilcox, D, Cameron, G, Reber, B & Shin, J 2013, Think public relations, 2nd edn, Pearson Education, New Jersey

COMM11110 – Module 2 blog topic: The earliest PR campaign you can find

Module 2 Blog Topic: What is the earliest PR campaign you can find? What are the signs that this is to do with PR and not simply advertising? Is there anything in the campaign that could not be used today? Why not? Give at least two references to illustrate your post.

Public Relations Institute of Australia (2015) provides the definition of public relations as being a deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between the client and the public. Public relations practitioners evaluate public attitudes, they identify the policies and procedures of a client with the public interest. After that they then plan and execute a program of action to earn understanding and acceptance (Public Relations Institute of Australia 2015).

Wilcox, Cameron, Reber, & Shin (2013) states that, the earliest PR campaign that is not simply advertising is Ivy Ledbetter Lee’s public relations dealings as a consultant to the Rockefeller family and CF&I company during the Ludlow Massacre in April 1929. The first sign that it was to do with PR and not simply advertising, was his first advice talking Rockefeller out of using advertising as a form of combating negative publicity (Wilcox et al. 2013). The second sign that it was not simply advertising was, that he communicated to all parties involved; thereby, making his assessment of public opinion to inform his public relations tactics. Lee utilised information from the press and articles to advise him on the best course of action. Ivy Ledbetter attended government hearings giving frequent testimonials for the Rockefellers and CF&I (Wilcox et al. 2013).

Through his use of public relations; Ivy Ledbetter Lee managed to prevent United Mine Workers from gaining a position in the CF&I mines. He was later to be named one of the forefathers’ of public relations, making four important contributions to public relations. Well, in today’s ethical rules I do not believe that the false or incorrect information that was used in the leaflets would have been allowed, but, other than that I am unsure what else could not be used today in Public Relations.

Figure 1: Public-relations-history-getting-where-you-want-to-go-by-knowing-where-youve-been-1-728 Source: Tullier M 2009 (2010)
Figure 1: Public-relations-history-getting-where-you-want-to-go-by-knowing-where-youve-been-1-728 Source: Tullier M 2009 (2010)

Figure Reference

Tullier M 2009 (2010), Public relations history getting where you want to go by knowing where you’ve been 1 728, digital image, APR slide share, viewed 11 May 2015,http://image.slidesharecdn.com/publicrelationshistory-100416215134-phpapp01/95/public-relations-history-getting-where-you-want-to-go-by-knowing-where-youve-been-1-728.jpg?cb=1271456300

References

Public Relations Institute of Australia 2015, History, viewed 11 May 2015, http://www.pria.com.au/aboutus/overview-and-corporate-profile/overview-and-corporate-profile

Wilcox, D, Cameron, G, Reber, B & Shin, J 2013, Think public relations, 2nd edn, Pearson Education, New Jersey.